Indian Economy (for UPSC Examination) 9e is mainly aimed at students who are preparing for the UPSC Prelim and Main examinations. Its content is aligned to suit the specific needs of aspirants who are appearing for various competitive examinations like the civil services examinations, as also for those who have opted for economics as one of their optional subjects.
The main objective here is to provide all the possible economic concepts–technical terms, economic policies and developments in India and changes in those policies in successive Indian governments—in one book. The systematic definition and explanation of many economic terms will be of use to the students who have opted for economics in their preparation of various competitive examinations.
The Ebook of Indian Economy isdesignedto be a useful resource for the UPSC and State PSC aspirants. Made into a multicolor Epub version of the print book, this ebook can be accessed anywhere anytime in the student’s mobile phone, tab or other portable devices whether Android or Windows. Every Chapter is designed based on its own theme and presents itself distinctly. Its easily navigable TOC and reference footnotes make it handy and more efficient for readers. This ebook is the perfect solution available to you 24*7 in your pockets
This lucid and concise overview of India’s macroeconomy presents a comprehensive assessment of governmental policies and measures crucial to economic growth and stability. Thematically structured, the book discusses the demand- and supply-side factors affecting India’s economy, poverty and inequality projecting remedial measures, fiscal and monetary policy, budget constraints, unemployment and inflation, the post-liberalization era and its effects on the labour and capital markets, future reforms in the economy, and trade and external sector.
Grounded in the Indian context with extensive case studies, illustrations, and examples, it relates economic theories to real-world economics.
The Indian economy has undergone marked changes over recent decades encompassing episodes of rapid growth and stagnation. It is a complex economic story that stretches back to the seismic events of 1947.
Within a measured overview, this new title in the World Economies series explains the development of the Indian economy since independence and partition. The author explores the debates around India’s trajectory that have linked its varied history to the domination in policy making of the interests of the industrial bourgeoisie, rich farmers, and white-collar workers.
The book uses case studies of poverty and inequality, of education, health, work, and gender issues to outline the human story behind the economic figures and performance indicators. The factors that have made India unique, such as its internal geography and languages, the significance of the service sector, and the “democratic paradox of public service delivery” are explored in detail. India’s demographic dividend of a young population is one factor indicating a bright economic future, although its traditions and political structures remain the focus of intense debate.
The book provides a welcome up-to-date overview of the contemporary Indian economy – and the reasons it has assumed its current form – that will be of great value to students, professionals, and scholars needing an introduction to this most diverse of economies.
India is not only the world’s largest and fiercely independent democracy, but also an emerging economic giant. But to date there has been no comprehensive account of India’s remarkable growth or the role policy has played in fueling this expansion. India: The Emerging Giant fills this gap, shedding light on one of the most successful experiments in economic development in modern history. Why did the early promise of the Indian economy not materialize and what led to its eventual turnaround? What policy initiatives have been undertaken in the last twenty years and how do they relate to the upward shift in the growth rate? What must be done to push the growth rate to double-digit levels? To answer these crucial questions, Arvind Panagariya offers a brilliant analysis of India’s economy over the last fifty years–from the promising start in the 1950s, to the near debacle of the 1970s (when India came to be regarded as a “basket case”), to the phenomenal about face of the last two decades. The author illuminates the ways that government policies have promoted economic growth (or, in the case of Indira Gandhi’s policies, economic stagnation), and offers insightful discussions of such key topics as poverty and inequality, tax reform, telecommunications (perhaps the single most important success story), agriculture and transportation, and the government’s role in health, education, and sanitation. The dramatic change in the fortunes of 1.1 billion people has, not surprisingly, generated tremendous interest in the economy of India. Arvind Panagariya offers the first major account of how this has come about and what more India must do to sustain its rapid growth and alleviate poverty. It will be must reading for everyone interested in modern India, foreign affairs, or the world economy.
In Restart, Mihir S. Sharma shows what can and must change in India’s policies, its administration and even its attitudes. The answers he provides are not obvious. Nor are they all comforting or conventional. Yet they could, in less time than you can imagine, unleash the creativity of a billion hopeful Indians.
Reforms and Economic Transformation in India is the second volume in the series Studies in Indian Economic Policies. The first volume, India’s Reforms: How They Produced Inclusive Growth (OUP, 2012), systematically demonstrated that reforms-led growth in India led to reduced poverty among all social groups. They also led to shifts in attitudes whereby citizens overwhelmingly acknowledge the benefits that accelerated growth has brought them and as voters, they now reward the governments that deliver superior economic outcomes and punish those that fail to do so. This latest volume takes as its starting point the fact that while reforms have undoubtedly delivered in terms of poverty reduction and associated social objectives, the impact has not been as substantial as seen in other reform-oriented economies such as South Korea and Taiwan in the 1960s and 1970s, and more recently, in China. The overarching hypothesis of the volume is that the smaller reduction in poverty has been the result of slower transformation of the economy from a primarily agrarian to a modern, industrial one. Even as the GDP share of agriculture has seen rapid decline, its employment share has declined very gradually. More than half of the workforce in India still remains in agriculture. In addition, non-farm workers are overwhelmingly in the informal sector. Against this background, the nine original essays by eminent economists pursue three broad themes using firm level data in both industry and services. The papers in part I ask why the transformation in India has been slow in terms of the movement of workers out of agriculture, into industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. They address what India needs to do to speed up this transformation. They specifically show that severe labor-market distortions and policy bias against large firms has been a key factor behind the slow transformation. The papers in part II analyze the transformation that reforms have brought about within and across enterprises. For example, they investigate the impact of privatization on enterprise profitability. Part III addresses the manner in which the reforms have helped promote social transformation. Here the papers analyze the impact the reforms have had on the fortunes of the socially disadvantaged groups in terms of wage and education outcomes and as entrepreneurs.
Much has been written on the Indian economy but this is the first major attempt to present India’s economic history as a continuous process, and to place the development of agriculture, industry and currency in a political and historical context.
This book discusses the role historical events played in determining the pattern of growth of Indian manufacturing. Two important historical events significantly influenced the course of Indian manufacturing from the 15th century AD. The first was the arrival of European merchants via sea route pioneered by Vasco-da-Gamma in 1498 and the other was the dawn of the Mughal Empire in 1526. The book explores how these two events provided the appropriate stimulus for the emergence of traditional flexible manufacturing in India and how they played a vital role in the pattern of growth of the Indian manufacturing: The Mughal Empire created an integrated economy of continental size whereas European trading companies expanded the commercial connectivity of the Indian economy and South East Asia. It further investigates how the circumstances created by the colonial administration, factor endowment and market conditions created the complex forms of manufacturing enterprises that India inherited at the time of independence. It is a valuable resource for students of history, economic history, business history and the history of technology.
When India embraced systematic economic reforms in 1991 and began opening its economy to both domestic and foreign competition, critics argued that they had contributed little to the acceleration of economic growth. Their argument had rested on the claim that growth in the 1990s was no faster than in the 1980s. This claim was quickly refuted on the grounds that when properly evaluated, growth had indeed accelerated in the 1990s and, more importantly, while reforms had been made systematic in 1991, they had actually begun much earlier in the late 1970s. Subsequently, the reforms of the late 1990s and early 2000s have led to a jump in the growth rate from six percent in the 1990s to eight to nine percent beginning in 2003. The reforms have also led to a major structural change in the economy: the trade to GDP ratio tripled since 1991, there has been a gigantic expansion of foreign investment in India, and sectors such as telecommunications, airlines, and automobiles have expanded at rates much higher than those observed any time in the past. This dramatic turn-around has led the critics to shift ground. They now argue that opening the economy to trade has hurt the poor; that rapid growth is leaving the socially disadvantaged groups behind; and that the reforms have led to increased inequality. They also argue that people themselves do not feel that their fortunes are improving. The five original essays in this volume, topped by a substantial introductory essay summarizing their findings, take these challenges head on. They use large-scale sample surveys and other data to systematically address each of these arguments. They show that trade openness has indeed helped reduce poverty not just in general but also among the socially disadvantaged groups. The contributors to the volume find no evidence whatsoever in favor of a negative impact of trade openness on poverty on any groups. The essays also show that inequality shows no clear trend and is unrelated to trade openness. Peoples responses have also now turned grossly in favor of reforms. Thus, when asked how they feel about the change in their fortunes in the recent past, an overwhelmingly large proportion of individuals from every conceivable group report improvements. Moreover, systematic analysis of the 2009 parliamentary elections show that people now reward the Chief Ministers in states in which they deliver superior growth outcomes and punish those that do not. This book is the first volume in the series Studies in Indian Economic Policies edited by Jagdish Bhagwati and Arvind Panagariya and published by OUP. It contains the first set of five original papers produced under the auspices of the Columbia Program on Indian Economic Policies housed in the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) and the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy (ISERP).